The following diagram explains the Hebrew Day of Rest (aka Shabbat, the 4th Commandment) and its main principle (click to enlarge)
Please also note, that the Pentateuch does not imply that the Day of Rest is a Saturday. In fact, it can be any day, as long as it is always the 7th day.
As you can see from the diagram, the roughly 24 hour day is divided into 6 sections of 4 hours each. The regular day is represented by each 4 hour section, whereas the Day of Rest (Shabbat) is represented by the entire 24 hour period. This means that the Day of Rest always represents the 6 regular days prior to and after the Day of Rest. This also means that each 4 hours of the Day of Rest represent 1 regular day.
Of'course, this in no way means that it is possible to predict the future or recall the past during the Day of Rest. However, this does make the Day of Rest very special, as the past and the future do indeed converge at this time period. In other words, the Day of Rest represents the primary cycle of the universe. And those who observe the Day of Rest live in harmony with the universe and with God.
In the Tabernacle, the Day of Rest is represented by the Tabernacle Corner Boards (and their description).